Card, N. A., Selig, J. P., Little, T. D. (Eds.) (2008). Modeling Dyadic and Interdependent Data in the Developmental and Behavioral Sciences. New York, NY: Routledge
Lee, J., Little, T. D., & Preacher, K.J. (2010). Partial factorial invariance in crosscultural research. In E. Davidov, P. Schmidt & J. Billiet (Eds.), Cross-cultural data analysis: Methods and applications. New York: Guilford press. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has been suggested as a single, integrated framework for testing cross-cultural group differences. Recently, particular forms of SEM have been widely used to detect the items that function differently for different groups (i.e., differential item functioning; DIF). Accordingly, the primary goal of this chapter is to discuss some methodological issues that may arise when researchers conduct SEM-based DIF analysis.
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